Technical terms related to hydraulic equipment are listed here. Terms are listed in alphabetical order.
Please click the corresponding rows below.
Technical terms related to hydraulic equipment are listed here. Terms are listed in alphabetical order.
|ABT (ABR) connection||A type of flow connecting port A,B and T but connection to port P is cut off.|
|Accumulator||A pressurized storage container for application of fluid as the energy source.|
|Actuator||Machinery using pressure from hydraulic oil/ other fluids to accomplish mechanical tasks.|
|Anti-cavitation valve||A check valve for preventing cavitation; Also called anti-void valve.|
|Aperture property||The relationship between spool stroke and cross-sectional area of oil passage.|
|Back pressure||Pressure exerted on the back of pressure acting surface, discharge side or return side of the passage.|
|Back pressure valve||An adjustment valve for keeping the primary pressure at a pre-set level by discharging fluid according to changes in primary pressure.|
|Bleed-off circuit||A circuit located at oil supply side of the actuator for varying oil flow velocity by regulating oil flow in the
|Bridge Circuit||A circuit for keeping the output pressure same level with the input pressure.|
|Bypass valve||A 3-port flow adjustment valve in which the passage of the pressure compensation valve branches in front of the variable restrictor so that the remaining fluid is directed to the oil tank or secondary supply passage.|
|Cap side||The side of the cylinder opposite to that on which piston rods protrude outwards ;As of opposite to
|Cavitation||A phenomenon involving formation of vapour cavities due to a partial decrease in fluid pressure.|
|Chattering||A self-induced vibration which, When hitting the base of the relief valve, gives a relatively high – pitch sound.|
|Check valve||Valve for ensuring one way flow of fluid; for prevention of backflow.|
|Check valve/ non-return valve||A valve only allowing fluid flow in one single direction and forbidding the backflow of fluid.|
|Choke||A choke with a length longer than its diameter.|
|Closed centre||A closed oil passage in control valve connecting the pump input port to the tank port when the spool stays at the central position.|
|Contaminant||Unwanted particles mixed in hydraulic oil.|
|Contamination||A condition involving intrusion of unwanted particles into hydraulic fluid.|
|Control valve||Device for controlling fluid flow direction, pressure and velocity.|
|Counter-balance valve||Pressure regulating valve for maintaining the back pressure to prevent the load from falling.|
|Cracking pressure||Pressure level at which, due to rise in relief valve, the oil passage opens up and allows oil flow.|
|Cylinder||Actuator conducting straight -line motion.|
|Detent||A mechanism aiming to keep the valve at its designated position by mechanical resistance.|
|Diversion valve||A type of valve in which, When the pressure source is diverted into 2 or more streams, The flow at each exit is
maintained at pre-set level regardless of pressure at other passage.
|Drain||Return of fluid from passages in the machine to the tank/manifold.|
|Electromagnetic valve||A valve operated with an electromagnet.|
|Emergency valve||Valve for fully opening/ closing of oil circuits in case of emergency.|
|Erosion||Wearing at the surfaces due to collisions with or ejections of fluids or suspended particles.|
|Valve for regulating oil flow or pressure, with electricity as the input signal.|
|Floating position||The position of the valve body when the entry port is blocked while all exits are connected to return port or discharge port.|
|Flow (rate)||Volume of fluid passing through a certain point of the passage surface per unit of time.|
|Flow control valve||Control valve for maintaining a constant flow by the principles of pressure compensation regardless of any
change in back pressure / pressure at the oil entry.
|Fluid force||Force exerted on the passage wall surface by passing fluid.|
|Flushing||A system operation for washing internal passages and cavities at low pressure with special flushing fluid.|
|Full efficiency||Ratio between fluid force in hydraulic motor/pump and axial force; product of displacement efficiency and
|Gasket||A type of seal clamped and bolted in place between mating surfaces(Like flange surfaces in valves) for
prevention of fluid leakage.
|Gear pump||A pump operating with two or more gears meshing together inside the casing for sucking in and pushing out of fluid.|
|Heat shock||Impact due to sudden change in temperature.|
|Hydraulic fluid||Fluid used in hydraulic devices/systems.|
|Hydraulic lock/ Hydro lock/
|A condition when the piston/spool stops its motion due to uneven distribution of pressure.|
|Hysteresis||Maximum difference in output flow arises from the same input signal in one complete signal cycle|
|Leakage||Oil escape at an unfavorable position/ position where oil flow should have been stopped.|
|Load-sensing||An Operation principle involving detection of the system’s maximum loading pressure and, by controlling the pressure compensation valve, diversion of hydraulic fluid to the system with high pressure for flow control in the pump.|
|Lock characteristic||The extent to which a hydraulic motor rotates due the load exerted onto the output shaft when the discharge side of the motor is blocked.|
|Lock valve; Load-holding valve; Anti drift valve (Caterpillar)||Check valve for preventing free fall due to the weight of the cylinder.|
|Logic valve||A two port valve constructed with cover, sleeve, poppet and springs; Installed inside the block which opens and closes the poppet upon receiving pressure signals from the pilot line.|
|Manifold||A block installing to, two or more devices and acting as pipes by completing internal oil passages.|
|Mechanical efficiency||Ratio of theoretical torque and actually output torque in hydraulic motors and pumps.|
|Meter-in circuit||A circuit for regulating the oil flow velocity on the oil in-flow side of the actuator.|
|Meter-out circuit||A circuit for regulating the oil flow velocity on the oil out -flow side of the actuator.|
|Motor||An actuator providing rotary motions.|
|Negative control||A type of control in which the pump’s oil flow decreases proportionally according to the signal pressure from the control valve.|
|Normal position||Valve’s position when operating power/ control signal is suspended.|
|Open centre||An opened oil passage in control valve connecting the pump input port to the tank port when the spool stays at the centre.|
|Operating position||The position of the valve’s end during operation.|
|Orifice||A choke for limiting oil flow, adjustment of reaction time and prevention of hunting time phenomenon.|
|Oscillation||Periodic fluctuation in pressure level during regular movement.|
|Pilot pressure||Pressure exerted to the pilot circuit.|
|Pilot valve||Small-scale valve for controlling the main valve via adjustment valve, electromagnetic valve and safety valve.|
|Piston||A cylinder part which operates upon exertion of fluid pressure onto the inner surface of the cylinder and
transmits mechanical force/ motion.
|Piston pump||A pump converting input shaft’s rotary motion to movements of axially arranged pistons by sucking in and
|Piston rod||A co-axial part installed to a piston for force/motion transmission from pistons.|
|Plunger||A mechanical part with a length longer than its diameter for acting and reacting to fluid pressure during piston
movements inside the cylinder.
|Poppet valve||A type of valve in which the body moves vertical from the sheet surface of the valve base to open/close the
|Positive control||A type of control in which the pump’s oil flow increases proportionally according to the signal pressure from
the control valve.
|Power take-off||Output port for power from devices other than the engine shafts. Also used for retrieving hydraulic power from the reserve control valve.|
|Pressure loss/ drop||Loss of fluid pressure due to resistance occurred against fluid flow inside the oil passage.|
|Pressure compensation||A function for maintaining the pressure at a default level in devices / circuits.|
|Pressure reducing valve||Pressure control valve with regardless of pressure at the entry port.|
|Rated flow||Fluid flow determined by tests and, for maximising the device’s/ pipe’s life span, applied as a standard for design and use.|
|Rated pressure||Pressure level determined by tests and, for maximising the device’s/ pipe’s life span, applied as a standard for
design and use.
|Receipt pressure||Pressure level at which, when the fluid flow from valve drops to a default value, the pressure at the entry port
decreases and the valve starts closing.
|Reduction gear/ reduction unit||Mechanical device for reducing gear’s rotation speed to increase output torque.|
|Relief valve||Pressure regulating valve for keeping the pressure inside the circuit at the default level by partial or full
|Response/ reaction time||Time required for the output pressure to reach a predetermined level after an input signal is sent to the
|Restrictor/throttle||A device for reducing cross-sectional area of the passage, thus creating resistance against the fluid flow inside.|
|Rod side||The side of the cylinder on which piston rod protrude outwards.|
|Seizure||A phenomenon involving occasional suspension of smooth movement at the spool/piston sliding surface.|
|Self-priming||Property/Ability of sucking oil by hydraulic pump.|
|Sequence valve||Pressure regulating valve which allows fluid flow from the entry port to the exit when the input pressure or
exterior pilot pressure reaches the pre-set level.
|Shuttle valve||With two entry ports and one common exit port; A valve in which either one of the entry ports is connected to
the exit according to pressure actions.
|Spool||A tandem constituent sliding against the internal surface of the hollow shaft for opening/closing oil passages.|
|Spring-centred||Another name for “spring return” when the 3 position valve’s initial position is the same as the normal (neutral) position.|
|Stroke||Displacement (moving distance) of the valve rod or the operating shaft.|
|Swing motor||Machine using oil pressure for rotary motion in construction machinery.|
|Swing unit||Machine consisting a swing motor and a reduction unit combined in a parallel way.|
|Unload valve||Safety valve for preventing damage to hydraulic equipment and pipes when fluid pressure reaches a certain level.|
|Valve||Collective term for devices controlling/regulating the flow direction, pressure and velocity in a fluid system.|
|Vent||Passage opening to the surrounding pressure.|
|Volumetric efficiency||Ratio between the theoretical flow and the actual flow in a hydraulic motor/pump.|
|Wrap||Overlapping of the spool’s land and port/Extent of the overlapping.|